The cover below is from seceded (Independent State Usage) Tennessee to Confederate Louisiana. The usage shown besides being incredibly scarce is certainly one of the most complex in CSA Philately.

7-STARS **

Manuscript postmark "Richland Station, Tenn June 6 (1861)" and addressed to Columbia, Louisiana. According to new research data published in 1991, Tennessee officially seceded on 6 MAY 1861 but did not join the CSA until 2 JUL 1861. Therefore, this cover was used during the INDEPENDENT STATE period for Tennessee. The complexity is in the fact that the US Postal Service suspended operations in the seceded states effective 1 JUN 1861. Since this is a federal stamp used in Tennessee after that date, the usage of the stamp is technically correct since Tennessee had not yet joined the Confederacy, but the letter should not have been delivered directly to Louisiana. It should have either been refused or additional CSA postage assessed. Perhaps the Postmasters in Tennessee and Louisiana just let it go through because they were all Southern Sympathizers. But the mere fact that addtional CSA postage was not assessed shows the extreme confusion that must have existed at that time.

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